Attitudes to leadership
Early attitudes to leadership were strongly influenced by feudal and military models. The leader was imposed from above and was expected to be blessed with certain personality traits which would enable him (and they were nearly always male) to cope with every problem. Unswerving loyalty and obedience was expected from every member of his party. The leader was expected to lead brilliantly to success, or die gloriously in failure.
People are now much more aware of leadership performance, and equally ready to criticise poor performance. This critical climate has stimulated considerable research and thought on what constitutes good and bad leadership in given situations. Much has been done in the area of business leadership, but relatively little has focussed on adventure leadership.