Each new approach to the topic has tended to extend or replace earlier theories, but older theories can provide a useful contribution.
The advocates of trait theories believed that leadership is basically hereditary. This approach differentiates leaders from non-leaders by physical and psychological attributes. It largely assumes that leaders are born and not made. The evidence against this position is very strong. If it were true, there would be no point in attempting to train leaders. The trait approach does help individuals to focus on their own attributes. The recognition of these personal qualities is an important starting point in leadership training.
Some writers have argued that leadership is determined by behaviour. If a person in a group behaves in certain ways then the rest of the group will see that person as the leader. The most obvious example of this is when someone takes a dominant or particularly effective role in assisting a group deal with a crisis. The group may begin to disregard the appointed leader and turn to the effective person.
This states that the most effective leaders are those most able to satisfy the ambitions of followers. The focus is on the followers’ needs, rather than on the leader’s skills. Leaders will change as the group’s needs change.
Another variant of the followers’ concept, proposing that circumstances dictate which individual is to emerge as the leader. Different skills are required in different situations, and the person with the requisite skills will arise as leader of the group. Leaders change as circumstances change.
The contingency approach suggests that personal styles and situational characteristics combine to determine leadership, requiring a match between styles and situations to determine the group leader. An example of this was the strongly forceful style of Winston Churchill which suited the war situation but was unacceptable in peacetime.
The dynamic approach to leadership recognises that leaders can adapt to changing situations. It emphasises the persuasive and adaptive nature of the leadership process and the need to make choices. Leaders must recognise that needs and circumstances are constantly changing. The effective leader has both the perception to recognise these changes and the versatility of leadership skills to adapt. Provided that the lead-er’s style and responses change appropriately to changing circumstances then the same leader will remain effective and acceptable.
Leadership training programs have, over many years, used some or all of these leadership theories. It is now generally accepted that leading is a dynamic process involving choices of behaviour. Other theoretical approaches based upon this general concept are examined in greater detail in following chapters.