The major element of this phase is the establishment of acceptable standards of behaviour within the group (i.e. group norms). Rules of behaviour will usually and desirably be worked out by consensus—often in a non-verbal manner. The leader is still needed for guidance and clarification, but the group is not so dependent and can solve some of its own problems. The leader should monitor the way the group is working and encourage contributions. Other themes of this phase include establishing individual roles and reaching basic agreement on the goal or purpose of the group.