Summary

The overall pattern of group development outlined by this model gives valuable insights to a group leader. The characteristic behaviour patterns of the first three phases (caution, exploration and aggression) can be understood and handled sympathetically. During these early stages, interesting and stimulating activities can be planned to give each member of the group the opportunity to make a constructive contribution and to appreciate the contributions of others. These activities should help the group move quickly through the early stages of development and into the more productive performing phase.

This model works well where there are high stakes such as a long period together, where there is something to prove or where the level of challenge is high. It seems to be less important when the trip is short, the group members know each other well, or for other reasons there is less at stake. In these circumstances, often the stages blur, with an important forming, some norming, little storming, and a level of performing as demanded by the circumstances.